Judy Starr on Growing Grapes

We met grape grower Judy Starr late last fall at the Paso Robles Garagiste Festival and really enjoyed talking to her about how she got started growing grapes. So fast forward to early this month, and we’re doing a bus tour of the Paso Robles region with the Cellarmasters home winemaking club. Our last stop was Starr Ranch Vineyard and Winery. Starr was not only there, she stayed open late for us, then poured while we sat around tables in her winery yard, overlooking the vines, as a soft breeze rustled the trees above us. One of our friends called it our nap for the day, it was so relaxing. And the wine was even more amazing. So amazing Anne blew the wine budget and then some buying several bottles.

So we highly recommend getting a glass of nice, crisp rose, then hauling it and your laptop outside under a tree somewhere and watching the below video. There’s a transcription underneath, too. Oh, and one quick note – most winemakers enjoy chatting with people and pouring their wines, but they really don’t like the sales part of it.

Judy Starr:

I began life 14 years ago as a vineyard. When I got here, I did not expect to have a label called Starr Ranch. I just wanted to grow fruit.

So, that’s where I started and I now know that’s a good place to start, because you’re sure of your grape supply and the quality of it from the beginning. So after I’d done that for a few years, I started my own little label. Because, after all, you’ve nurtured these grapes from the beginning, and then you take the next step.

Q – How did you start growing grapes?

Interesting question. Actually, it was sort of a… It wasn’t a mid-life crisis kind of a thing. But my children grew up and they did what they were supposed to do. They left home and got jobs. And so then I decided I had enough time and energy to do something interesting. And I wanted to grow something. I didn’t know at that point what it would be. I looked around for about for about four or five years and decided it would be wine grapes. Once I got to wine grapes, Paso [Robles] was pretty easy. It was 14 years ago and there were 33 wineries.

Q – Do you enjoy selling your wines?

Actually, I do enjoy selling the wine. Because it is an expression of what I put my time and energy into. I’m not the winemaker, as such, except if you believe that the wine is made in the vineyard. That’s my job. I care a lot about farming the fruit and producing excellent product. So if you have that, then the winemaking piece of it is easy. So I think for me, yes, the most fun is… is… seeing harvest every year. You put a lot of time and energy into it. A lot of work, a lot of hand work, a lot of people. Even when harvest approaches, you get this sense of anticipation that permeates everything. And it’s a very intangible sort of thing, but it’s certainly there when you farm.

Depending on where you live, of course, you can buy Starr’s wines from her Starr-Ranch.com website. And if you’re going to be in Los Angeles on July 11, you can go to the L.A. Garagiste Festival at the Wiltern Theatre

Cabernet Sauvignon, by Kimberlee Nicholls of Markham Vineyards

We met Kimberlee Nicholls, winemaker at Markham Vineyards, at a tasting put on by local KIMdoorpublic TV station KCET to celebrate the short TV series Vintage: Napa Valley 2012, which features Nicholls and fellow winemakers Marisa Taylor and Elizabeth Vianna (and, yes, Ms. Vianna, we will get to you). Nicholls was pouring the Markham cabernet sauvignon. We know, we make fun of all the snootiness surrounding Napa cabs. We didn’t know how much the Markham wines went for, so the price was definitely not influencing us. We were blown away – enough to cough up the $35-plus to buy another bottle. So who better to talk about the cabernet saubvignon grape than the woman who makes the one we love?

We did have to do this via email, however, which means that Nicholls pretty much wrote the post for us (thank you, Kimberlee)

1.) Cabernet sauvignon is everywhere! Why is that?

Cabernet Sauvignon is a very adaptable grape.  Budbreak is later than other varietals in the spring making it a better suited for locations with cold winters, frost concerns or high elevations.  With its thick skins and small berries set on loose clusters, Cabernet is more resistant to an occasional bit of unfavorable weather throughout the growing season.  It is a huge benefit that Cabernet is grown everywhere allowing us to further our knowledge of wines made from this fantastic grape.  There are more clonal selections (clones are individual variations of the grape, just like the different types of apples) of Cab than any other varietal, making for unlimited amounts of research available in practically every region of the world.  Ultimately this has helped all of us make informed vineyard planting decisions by being able to match soil type with specific weather conditions to successfully achieve our winemaking goals.

Markham Vineyards, St. Helena, Napa Valley

Markham Vineyards, St. Helena, Napa Valley

2.) Why is there such a range in prices on cab sauv?

As with any grape varietal, land value is always going to dictate a large part of the bottle price.  At Markham Vineyards, we produce our estate grown Cabernet Sauvignon from vineyards purchased in the mid-70’s.  As you can imagine, land in Napa Valley was a bit less expensive than what you might find if you were looking to purchase a vineyard today.  Then you need to add in the planting, difficulty of farming, especially on hillsides, and the price continues to climb on that bottle of wine.  With its small clusters, Cabernet is not known for producing high yields and vineyard diligence is necessary to grow the best fruit.  In order to get Cab truly ripe, care must be taken in the vineyard to allow filtered light to each cluster which helps burn off the bell pepper character inherit to the varietal.

Cabernet Sauvignon is a grape/wine with a proven track record for age-ability.  When grown in the best locations, the tannins extracted from its skins require more aging than most other varietals.  It is why such great care is taken from the vineyard all the way along to the bottle.  Hand picking in the field and additional sorting as the fruit arrives at the winery must make the grape feel like a rock star, not to mention that it is the last thing to be picked demanding full attention as the closing act during harvest.  Cold soaking, specialized yeast treatment and extended maceration only further enhance the terroir or ‘sense of place’ that truly great Cabernet embodies.  Barrel aging layers more nuance (and cost, of course) to enhance the your wine as you patiently wait upwards of two years before finally blending and bottling your masterpiece.  But wait… there is still another several months up to an entire year as the wine rests in the bottle before it is ready to be released.  Cabernet is truly an investment in time that people rarely understand.  A winery may have as many as 3-4 entire Cabernet vintages in tank, barrel and bottle at any given time.

3.) If I see cab sauv on a label, what should I expect to find inside? (Flavors, colors – how do I know it’s a good one?)

Cabernet Sauvignon typically has a deep, garnet color.  Color is your first indication on any wine and the color will let you gauge the concentration and/or age of the Cab in your glass.  Cabernet an expressive wine, it allows you to taste the place where it was grown, exactly how it was made and even to guess at its age.  An older wine may have a bit of crystal on both the cork and shoulder of the bottle.  These tartrates occur naturally as wines ages, tannins and acid soften and fall out of the wine, allowing for delicate floral and caramel aromas to dance in your glass.  Young Cab tends to be chewy, full of intensity and often makes your teeth black.  Many prefer to age Cabernet, giving it time to settle down and drinking around 8 years from the vintage shown on the bottle. mrkkimnicholls300dpi

When you open your bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon, spend time to focus on the clues it is providing.  Can you smell and taste mineral notes from the chalky soil in which it was grown?  Was it from an especially warm vintage and overflowing with jammy, blackberry fruit?  Or maybe it was grown in a colder climate, full of earth and brooding darkness throughout.  Was there a eucalyptus tree in the vineyard where the Cabernet was grown because you taste mint?  Is it dark and chewy or supple, like a velvet glove on your palate?  What type of barrels did the winemaker use, does it have more vanilla, toasty oak or was it smoky with mocha and roasted coffee character?  Can you smell hint of violets from the Petit Verdot or the Cabernet Franc that was blended in?  By sharing the experience with a friend, you can not only enhance your experience but develop your vocabulary.  Wine should make you relax, add friends and a bit of food to magically transform all your wines into lasting memories!

And there you have it. Yum!

Nicole Pope Talks Oxidation and Pinot Noir

It’s another winemaker video – this time featuring Nicole Pope, winemaker for Stolo Family Vineyards, where she works with her husband, Lucas Pope, who is the vineyard consultant for the company, located in Cambria, California. Our conversation with Ms. Pope kind of went all over the place, but we had a grand time and hope you do, too.

We’re including the transcription from the video because we totally get that not everyone can or wants to sit through a video.
I’m Nicole Pope, with Stolo Family Vineyards
Q- How long have you been there?
Three years now?
Q- How long have you been making wine?
Almost 10 years?
Q- How prominent were women in the industry when you started?
There were some women who had started in the ‘80s, as like… There were not very many women. When I came along, I went to Cal Poly and I studied biology. The viticulture program was just starting out. I actually ended up working, the first winery that I worked for was run by a woman. She was the head winemaker and the CEO
Q (Turns out that was not just any woman…) You worked with Eileen Crane at Domaine Carneros?
She’s a very powerful woman. And she really took… She started the winery there. So it was really interesting to learn from her. She knows everything about sparkling wine. And just to see how she runs the place. I never felt like “I’m a girl, I can’t, I don’t do something. We were all… It didn’t matter.
Q- You say you like working with Pinot Noir. Everybody calls it the heartbreak grape, but
Yeah. It’s kind of what I started out working with. Cool climate grapes. I started out working in Carneros and Arroyo Grande Valley, Edna Valley, and now out in Cambria. So Pinot Noir grows best out there in the fog. Once you figure out how to work with it and you just understand oxidation and things like that and preventing it.
Q What is oxidation?
Wine can be oxidized very easily and it kind of depends on the stage. When it’s fermenting, it needs oxygen. The yeast need oxygen to grow healthily and convert sugar to alcohol. But once wine is in the aging process, once it’s in barrel, you want to keep it topped up [i.e. keeping the container full]. You don’t want a lot of head space. When you’re racking {moving the wine from one container to another to get rid of schmutz and other icky stuff], you don’t want to be mixing in a lot of air. And certain varieties can use some, but pinot noir usually can’t. So you want to prevent oxidation because it just oxidizes quicker. And you get the flavors of oxidation. It just becomes more pruney or even like bruised apple, those kind of flavors. And you ruin the freshness of the wine.

Broadly Speaking at the L.A. Wine Fest

We’re kind of sticking our necks out here on the objectivity thing. So in the interests of full disclosure, Michael will be pouring wines at this event, representing the Cellarmasters Los Angeles home winemaking club (to which we belong). Michael, in his capacity as archivist for the City of Los Angeles, also works with festival founder Joel Fisher as members of the Los Angeles City Historical Society. We’re also, hopefully, getting press passes to the event. Oh, and two of the wineries pouring in the Boutique Tent are from friends of ours.

New LAWF logo-TENTHIf you happen to be in Los Angeles and at loose ends this weekend (May 30 and 31), you may want to check out the LAWineFest, running from 1 to 5 p.m. both days. If you’re not in L.A., but have been hearing about a wine festival or tasting event near you and are wondering if it’s really worth the (often) steep ticket price, read on.

We talked with Sara Fisher Chapin, who works alongside her father and festival founder and CEO Joel Fisher to run the LAWineFest. This is the 10th year for the festival, and it is quite the undertaking.Sara3

“It is a full year of work to make something of this scale,” Chapin said.

Festivals vary in size and scope. The LAWineFest is featuring over 60 wineries from all over the world, and over 5,000 people are expected to show up at the Raleigh Studios (5300 Melrose Ave. Hollywood) over the two days. Chapin said the best reason for attending a festival is because you can try a lot of very different wines without having to buy lots of different bottles.

“It’s a safe environment to explore and learn,” Chapin said. “It’s the equivalent of a survey. You can go broad.”

The idea is that because you’ve already paid for the tastings up front, you can afford to taste something that, maybe, you wouldn’t want to buy as a bottle or as a glass in a pricey restaurant. Better yet, you don’t have to feel obligated to like everything. Or even to drink all the wine in your glass, even if you do like it.crowd20131

“Don’t be embarrassed to dump out the wine if you’ve had enough of a taste,” Chapin said. “No one’s feelings are going to get hurt. Everyone respects that there are different tastes and palates.”

And we’d also like to add that no one is going to assume that you didn’t like a wine because you dumped out half the taste or spit your taste out into a spit cup. That’s because professional tasters do exactly that so they don’t get blitzed while tasting. Chapin pointed out that you also don’t need to taste every single wine from every single winery.

“Pace yourself. Hydrate. Take advantage of the yummy food trucks,” she said.

The LAWineFest will feature talks on wine, food and wine pairings and other entertainment on the festival stage, which Chapin said, will make it easier to take a break. Some other fun features of this particular festival include being able to buy wines from the various wineries through Drizly, a web delivery service for alcoholic beverages. In addition, if you have an iPhone, you can load up the Quini app (they still don’t have the Android version, grumble, grumble) and not only rate the wines you taste, but vote for your faves and they’ll announce the winners on Sunday, which is actually pretty cool.

Tickets for this festival are $85/$160 per couple. Add another $20 onto your ticket and you can visit the Boutique Wine Garden. These are small boutique wineries that don’t produce more than 1,500 cases of wine a year. Note, our friends at Old Oak Winery and Vinemark will be pouring there.

“Come ready to explore,” Chapin said. And she’s dead on about that one.

About Viognier with Morgan Clendenen

Winemaker Morgan Clendenen, used by permission

Winemaker Morgan Clendenen, used by permission

When we decided to do a class on viognier, there was really only one person we thought of it to discuss it: Morgan Clendenen, owner and winemaker at Cold Heaven Cellars. In addition to her signature syrah and lovely pinot noirs, she makes awesome viogniers, delicious wines with beautifully balanced fruit and acids.

Clendenen has been making wine since 1996.

“I was in sales and marketing for a distributor in North Carolina,” she said. Then she married Jim Clendenen, who went on to found Au Bon Climat. The couple has since divorced, but her marriage did start her new career. “That is what got me into winemaking. Like Jim, I learned hands on.”

Viognier (pronounced vee-oh-nyay) is a white wine grape commonly known as one of the varietals grown in France’s Rhône Valley.

“It was originally brought in from Yugoslavia by the Romans,” Clendenen said.

But as the centuries passed, the grape became less and less popular and almost became extinct until 1965, when there were only 30 acres planted. Since then, the grape has come back slowly, with the Clendenens planting the grape in Santa Barbara County in 1998.

“It’s interesting – when I first started out, it was a hard sell,” Morgan Clendenen said. Part of the problem is that with California’s warm climate, the grapes would get very ripe and the resulting wine was high in alcohol, unctuous and cloying. “So viognier got a bad rap.”

viognier from Cold Heaven

Viognier from Cold Heaven

But Clendenen persevered and started working on making viognier with more acidity, which increased its popularity.

When you’re looking at a bottle, be aware that the wine could be fairly heavy. However, a good viognier usually features apricot, peach, honey, toasted nuts and vanilla in its flavor profile. Clendenen recommends serving it cold with Japanese and Mexican foods – anything with a little spice or heat.

“You have your classic pairings like scallops and white fish and the richer things like lobster,” she said. “But the ultimate pairing, in my opinion tends to be goat cheese. Goat cheese and viognier is like peas and carrots.”

Open That Bottle Night is Coming!

This post is coming from Anne’s solo perspective, instead of us writing as a pair.This is mostly because it was Anne’s idea to do a blog hop celebrating Open That Bottle Night with some lovely women we met at the Wine Blogger’s Conference last summer. And it was Anne who has actually met Dorothy Gaiter and John Brecher, who started Open That Bottle Night.

I’m going to go out on a bit of a limb here and confess that I pretty much hate most writing about wine – at least, the traditional wine writing. You want to torture me? Tie me up and make me read Wine Spectator. There’s minimal story. The photo spreads all look the same, and, frankly, I don’t want to read a bunch of pretentious notes about wine that I either can’t afford or can’t find.

bottles for OTBN or Open That Bottle Night

The Brander sparkling white and Joseph Blair Pinot that we’re opening on #OTBN

But then there was the Tastings column in the Wall Street Journal by John Brecher and Dorothy J. Gaiter. It began in the late 1990s and Michael and I were immediate fans. It talked about wine as something that was accessible, something fun and wonderful. John and Dorothy, as we came to call them even though we didn’t know them, shared our attitude, namely that the best wine was the wine you liked and that the experience surrounding the wine you drank had as much to do with the flavor as what was actually in the bottle. They even went out on a limb here and there and tasted bargain wines – the merlot experiment was not particularly successful. But, dummit, they kept trying.

More importantly, John and Dorothy told stories. They wrote about their process as they tasted that week’s flight. They wrote about their daughters bagging bottles for their blind tasting process and they worked through a lot of wine. They wrote about doing a Disney cruise with the kids and the joy of discovering that the wine on the ship wasn’t bad at all. Their rating system was what all rating systems are, at bottom, which is an opinion. But they used words from blech to Delicious! – and it was a rare wine, indeed, that earned that top rating.

And they came up with Open That Bottle Night, because almost anyone who has a wine collection has several bottles waiting for just the “right” special occasion, one that never seems to happen. It’s an event that has grown over the past however many years, and has even survived the demise of the Tastings column. Dorothy is now writing for the GrapeCollective.com, and we just found out that the last Saturday of February is still Open That Bottle Night.

I met Dorothy and John, when they came to Southern California, lo these many years ago, back when I was writing for Wines & Vines magazine. I was doing a profile on them and they had come out to judge wines for the commercial competition at the Los Angeles County Fair, so I went out to get pictures. John was judging whites, but Dorothy had just finished a panel of dessert wines and still had a glass of one she’d particularly liked. She insisted I take a snort and a sip – and she was dead on. That stuff was amazing (and, alas, no longer made) – and I really don’t like sweet wines.

For some reason, Michael and I don’t have too many issues with finding just the “right” special occasion for our bottles, so we don’t need an excuse like Open That Bottle Night. That doesn’t mean we won’t take advantage of it. As I recall, that first #OTBN, we drank a zinfandel and made dinner at home

You can read where John and Dorothy are going to be hanging out in NYC. We, here in L.A. (okay, Pasadena), are going to be celebrating at one of our fave restaurants, Cafe Bizou, mostly because they have one of the most liberal corkage fees in the county: $2 per bottle. Corkage is the fee restaurants charge if you bring your own bottle. Most run between $10 to $20 a bottle because the restaurants either want you to buy theirs (at the usual ridiculous mark up) or make the same profit. Cafe Bizou figures they’re saving a bundle by not having to keep as deep a wine cellar, so they’re fine with letting folks bring their own.

We’ll be bringing a Brander sparkling wine that I won at the Wine Bloggers Conference and  a Joseph Blair 2009 pinot noir that Michael has decided it’s time to drink. I’m just hoping that Cafe Bizou will still be offering their pris fixe menu that includes a Meat Trio of rack of lamb, short ribs and something else (dang, I should’ve gotten a picture of that menu board).

So what will you be doing? For some other ideas, check out the below blogs by my colleagues. And then raise a toast to John and Dorothy, two of the best wine writers in the biz. We certainly will.


Neeta Mittal On Wine and Indian Food

We met Neeta Mittal, co-owner with her husband of LXV Wine in Paso Robles, at last fall’s Garagiste Festival. Mittal is the driving force behind the winery, although the wines are made by Amy Butler. Mittal is also very eloquent on wine with food from her native India, something you might not think goes together. But she proves that it does. In fact, we took her up on her offer to visit the tasting room after the festival to try her spice experiment. What they do is pair spice mixes on bland cheese with their wines and the result is freaking amazing. But we’ll let Ms. Mittal tell you about it.

 

It’s the Valentine’s Day Calibration Tasting!

freixenetIt’s happened to all of us. You’re standing there, tasting wine and either the tasting notes or somebody is telling you about the apple overtones and you’re tasting and smelling peach. Especially if you’re new to wine, the natural thing is to wonder what’s wrong with your taste buds.

Well, we’re here to tell you that there is nothing wrong with your taste buds. The reality is we all experience taste differently. But the point of tasting notes is to share the experience of taste. When we, here at OddBallGrape, are writing about, say, the Freixenet Cordon Negro Brut, it’s helpful for you to have an idea of what to expect when you buy a bottle. But if we all experience taste differently, then how are tasting notes going to help?

Enter the calibration tasting. We purposely feature a wine that is widely available so that we can compare notes. That way, if we write toast and you tasted vanilla, the next time we write about the flavor of toast in a wine, you’ll know that you’re going to probably taste vanilla when and if you get a hold of that particular wine. Whether you like toast or vanilla in your wine is totally up to you, but at least you have a frame of reference to work with.

And, yes, this tasting does feature Freixenet Cordon Negro Brut. It’s a cava, or sparkling wine from Spain. We think cavas are some of the best buys around, especially for a sparkling wine. Most of them are made in the traditional Methode Champenoise style. They’re nice and dry but not in your face, like some California sparklers, and they are a heck of a lot cheaper to buy than pretty much anything else on the shelves.

Michael, our tasting manager, noted the pale color and lots of tiny bubbles – a good thing for a sparkler. He smelled toast and tasted a slight chalkiness, but not a lot of fruit. The nice thing was the way the bubbles dissolved at the back of the palate. It was definitely dry, with no sugar, and had a very clean finish, with no lingering bad aftertaste.

Now, it’s your turn. Feel free to put what you tasted in the comments below. Or let us know what you’re serving on Valentine’s Day.

A Quick Look at Slow Wine

Jonathan Gebser of Slow Wine Magazine

Jonathan Gebser of Slow Wine Magazine

Most of the wine trade who show up at a tasting event are there to answer one question and one question only: “What do I want to buy for my [shop, restaurant, wine bar]?” We media folk are looking for stories. Which is probably why Anne was a little disappointed by the Slow Wine tasting event in Los Angeles.

Not by the wine, mind you. These were some of the best buys Italy has to offer. They were fabulous across the board, although Michael found one that really stirred his heart strings.

But the event was more about selling Italian wines than it was about Slow Wine or the Slow Food Movement, which we are very interested in. Fortunately, we did get a quick chat with one of the editors of the Slow Wine Magazine, an online magazine featuring Italian wines.

“Slow Wine is a part of Slow Food, actually,” said Jonathab Gebser, Assistant Editor at the magazine. “It was just a little later that Slow Food started applying their philosophy of quality food to wine.”

Slow Food is the international organization founded in 1989 in Italy that encourages and supports food that is Good, Clean and Fair, in terms of high quality food, cleanly produced and socially just across the board.

“We look for this quality… The three principles of good, clean and fair,” Gebser said about the magazine’s focus. “Clean agriculture, sustainable agriculture, good quality products, good taste and healthy products, and fair, which regards fair payment for the producers, but also fair prices for the consumer.”

Social justice is a big issue for many wineries and vineyards, especially here in California, where farm workers are frequently underpaid for some of the most miserably hard work ever done.

We did not get to talk to the producers about the Slow Food/Wine thing. They were too busy pouring for potential customers. But we did get to hear some great stories that we hope we’ll get to share with you in the future. As for the wine that so impressed Michael? It was the La Gironda Barbera D’Asti Nizza 2011 – which is made from a special harvest. Michael thought it was the best wine of the day. “Nice balance of fruit, acidity and flavors that were not overly rustic,” he wrote in his notes. “A nice sipper that really sings with a bit of fat on the palate.” You can bet he is going to track down the importer and get some more of it.

And it was tagged as a particularly good example of a Slow Wine. Hey, we’re down with that.

 

What Are Tannins? Rick Longoria Explains

Winemaker Rick Longoria

Winemaker Rick Longoria

If folks tend to refer to Rick Longoria with a certain reverence, it’s not just that he produces some truly awesome wines. He is also one of the pioneers of the Santa Ynez wine country. He started working in the area in 1976, and founded his Longoria winery in 1982. We just happened to catch Mr. Longoria in his Lompoc tasting room, so, like, we’re going to turn down an opportunity to ask the man about something wine-related? Of course not! And since Mr. Longoria is all about longevity and structure, then what better question to ask him than “What are tannins?”

If you’ve ever sipped some red wine and felt a sharp, almost drying sensation in your mouth, then what you’re noticing are the tannins in the wine. But what are they? Where do they come from? And why is some tannin good, but too much is bad?

“Tannins are a natural compound found in the skins of all grapes,” Longoria said.

But, he explained, since white grapes are pressed immediately after they are crushed, the juice doesn’t pick up the tannin compounds. Red grapes, on the other hand, are crushed but the juice is left with the fruit skins while it is being fermented, which gives red wines their color and also tannins.

“Red wines pick up the tannins from the skins of red grapes,” Longoria said. “And every variety, characteristically, has different levels of tannin. Pinot noir, for example, is one of the varieties that has the least amount of tannin. And going up the spectrum, some of the syrahs, cabernet sauvignon, the Bordeaux varietals, have higher levels of tannin.”

Longoria also pointed out that tannins are not tannic acid. They’re actually poly-phenols and not acid components. In addition, how much tannin ends up in a wine is something that the winemaker can adjust by prolonging or shortening the contact the juice has with the crushed grapes.

“Tannins help in the ageability of red wines,” Longoria said. “They act as a kind of shield that – layers of shields – that as the years progress, they get bound up.”

So as a red wine gets older, it gets softer, and hopefully the amount of tannin ends up balancing out the flavor of the fruit.

“The ideal thing would be to have just the exact number of tannin levels, let’s say tannin layers, so that when the fruit of a wine finally gets to a point of ultimate maturation, let’s say 15 years, that last layer of tannin has been resolved. So then you have this perfect, harmonious integration of the fruit flavor, maturation and there’s not more tannin to interfere with it.”

Longoria also noted that some winemakers will miss the mark and allow too much tannin into a wine, with the result that the fruit is gone, but the tannin is still there. And that is why some older wines are beyond marvelous and others just make your teeth feel dry.